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A Look Into the Insulator Collecting Hobby-Should the CD 112 California Be Designated CD 114? Story by Logan Tuttle

This is my collection of glass insulators. I have gathered around 600 them in my three years of collecting. Although this image shows many colors and styles of glass insulators, it is only a small fraction of all the colors and varieties. Photo by Travis Tuttle
Wall of glass… This is my collection of glass insulators. I have gathered around 600 them in my three years of collecting. Although this image shows many colors and styles of glass insulators, it is only a small fraction of all the colors and varieties. Photo by Travis Tuttle

Insulators, aren’t those the glass things that went on the telegraph poles? Yes, they are. But there is a lot more to them than that. There are hundreds of different styles, glass and porcelain, and several thousand collectors. What are all the collectors supposed to do with so many styles to know which ones are one-of-a-kind, and which were made by the thousands? The CD or Consolidate Design system was invented for the purpose of identifying, cataloging, pricing, and comparing insulator designs.

tuttlelogan_1055_126465_a picture 31CD112or114insulator-1Even though this system was invented in the 1960s when people had only just started collecting insulators, new designs are being added, switched, or merged with other styles. Recently, there has been a debate whether or not to change the small California CD 112 variant to CD 114. These two styles are transposition styles that have a second wire groove (the dip on the side of the insulator) to reduce “crosstalk” of two parallel wires. Crosstalk is when one phone call or telegraph message leaks a tiny bit into the line that it is paralleled to. It helps reduce this when the wires are crossed at intervals along the line.

The CD 112 style was produced in large amounts by many different companies until around the 1920s when it was replaced by the CD 113 which used less glass therefore being less costly. The CD 114, until now, was considered to only be produced by Hemingray Glass Company; one of the main producers of glass insulators in America until 1967 when there was too much competition from porcelain insulator manufacturers. Hemingray also replaced the CD 114 with the CD 113.

The CD 114 is not very much unlike the CD 112. The only major differences are that the CD 114 lacks a lower wire ridge (the protruding ridge below the lower wire groove on the CD 112 insulator) and the dome of the CD 114 can be somewhat of a prism shape in some variants. The California Glass Insulator Company (California) opened in 1912 in Longbeach California, and used sand mined nearby for their glass, which was often a smoke or yellow color that turned a smoky purple-brown when exposed to sunlight for long amounts of time, although they made a wide spectrum of colors such as blue, sage green, plum, and two tones; a mixtures of two colors.

Although the plant was only open for four years, they produced as many insulators as a lot of companies that were open much longer. They made around 15,000 insulators every day. Before they closed in 1916 due to flooding, they produced many styles including the CD 112s. When the company had just started, they used the typical CD 112 design, then they quickly switched to the disputed CD 112-114, because it cost slightly less to produce. Because of this, there are few original CD 112 design Californias. If the later design of the CD 112 is designated CD 114, there will be a listing both for cd 112 (the earlier style) and for 114 (the later more common style) for California. The later style has some characteristics of the CD 112, and some of the 114, leaving it somewhere in between.

Many experienced collectors claim that it is a CD 112, and many others say it’s a 114. Some say that the collectors should not get worked up over the details, and just leave it the way it is. No matter what happens, the California Glass Insulator Company will remain an iconic insulator manufacturer.

Works Cited

Lockhart Bill, Schreiver Beau, Serr Carol, Lindsey Bill. California Glass Insulator Co. 2014,             https://sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CaliforniaGlassInsulatorCo.pdf, Accessed 17, JAN 2017

Meyer, Bill. Insulators Glass & Porcelain. Amber 8 Computer Consultants, 2017 http://www.insulators.info/. Accessed 17, JAN 2017

MTG: What it is and why you should play it… Story By Alistair King

MTG: What it is and why you should play it

I move this piece to the right, your turn. I move this forward and attack, your piece is dead. What does this sound like to you? Just a simple game of chess? If you thought that you would be wrong, though the principle is the same.

Cardboard Crack... while some players can squeeze by with small collections, many players spend tons... Photo By Wizards of The Coast
Cardboard Crack… while some players can squeeze by with small collections, many players spend tons… Photo By Wizards of The Coast

Magic the Gathering (MTG) was first released in 1993 by Richard Garfield and published by Wizards of the Coast. The premise of the game is simple, each player has 20 life and their goal is to get the other players life total to 0. The game was almost an overnight hit for Wizards and it was impossible to meet the printing demands for the cards.

The game has received many awards for its gameplay and the sets they produce. The first time they got an award was a year after its release getting the Mensa Select award, and the latest being in 2015 as Origins “Best Card Game of the Year.”

In 2004 USA Today ran an article about MTG saying that the game might help develop mental and social skills. Parents that were interviewed said it was much like a sport and helps teach their children how to win and lose gracefully. However, MTG is highly addictive, with some players going as far to call it “Cardboard Crack.”

While the premise of the game is rather simple the actuality of it is rather complex. You have different types of cards you can play whether they be spells, creatures, or land that allows you to cast more of the cards that you have. Each deck is made with these cards. Average decks of cards are around 60 cards, But they often range from 40-100 depending on what format you are playing.

Deck construction is critical in this game. Players can’t just grab 60 cards, shuffle them together, and then expect for you to win the match. Certain cards work well with other cards and the best ones have effects that help each other. A way of seeing these types of cards is by looking at their color. There are 5 different basic colors in the game. Black, Blue, Red, White, and Green. Cards that help each other are often in the same color.

 

Photo By: Odyssey
An average match… Photo By: Odyssey

When players get around to playing a match the luck factor is visible almost immediately.  They start by drawing 7 cards and hoping that they get a good spread of lands, spells, and creatures. Not drawing enough lands means that you can’t cast spells, not enough creatures and your opponent can overpower you, and not enough spells and you won’t have any defense or offense.

The game ends with one of the players running out of life, running out of cards after which they can simply shuffle the cards back in and play again. But why should you play this game?

In simple, it’s fun. It’s a lot like chess that requires a fair bit of strategy to win, and players that have played chess extensively have a better chance of winning an even match. Second is that the cards you buy will always be usable. While cards do rotate out of the standard format, you can use them in a variety of other ways. Finally, a reason that you should play this game is that the cards have value. Collections of cards go for up to thousands of dollars and the most expensive card in all of Magic, the Black Lotus, goes for 100,000 dollars on a good day. While most players don’t have that much, many of them still have quite pricey collections.

Of Physics and Donuts… Story by John Holmes

What do donuts and superconductors have in common? The answer comes in a relatively astounding discovery, as the Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics – David Thouless, F. Duncan Haldane, and J. Michael Kosterlitz – can attest.

Donuts and math…to a topologist, a great combination. Photo by: John Holmes.
Donuts and math…to a topologist, a great combination. Photo by: John Holmes.

So, what is the common thread between pastries and physics? The answer lies in topology. Topology, also known as “rubber sheet geometry,” studies the various ways an object can be formed without being broken. Though topology has many similarities to geometry, topology differs due to its concern with holes. The more holes an object has in it, the more likely it is to be broken when forming a new shape. This is where the donut comes in. A donut has a hole in it, so if you wanted to form it into the shape of a slice of pizza, you would have to tear the donut apart. This, to a topologist, would make a donut different than a slice of pizza. However, since a slice of pizza has no holes, it can – theoretically – be formed into the shape of an apple, making an apple equivalent to a slice of pizza.

Perhaps, an easier explanation can be derived by using two-dimensional objects. A square, since it has no holes, can be formed into a circle, but a figure-eight cannot be shaped into a square due to its holes. In this example, a square is equivalent to a circle, but a figure-eight is not equivalent to a square.

The Laureates related this to the realm of condensed matter physics, using superconductors instead of donuts. Up until the early 1970’s, the popular theory was that thin layers of electrically conductive materials could not become superconductive. However, Michael Kosterlitz and David Thouless overturned that theory by demonstrating how superconductivity could occur at low temperatures. Later, in the 1980’s, Thouless showed that previous experiments with thin-film superconductors – in which the conductance was measured as integers – were topological in nature. Around that time, Duncan Haldane related topological concepts to chains of small magnets found in certain materials.

A square is equivalent to a circle…but a circle is not equivalent to a figure eight. Photo by: John Holmes.
A square is equivalent to a circle…but a circle is not equivalent to a figure eight. Photo by: John Holmes.

So, how do these concepts correlate to donuts? Through phase transitions. When a given amount of heat is added to – or taken from – matter, it can change from one state to another. This happens when heating an ice cube: the ice melts, changing from a solid to a liquid. Likewise, the opposite is true. When freezing water, heat leaves the system, thus the water transforms from a liquid to a solid. Normally, matter changes between four states – solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma. However, a change in temperature can also change the electrical properties of matter. These changes occur rapidly – similar to how the donut has a rapid change when it is broken; this is a topological phenomenon. That’s the discovery these three Laureates made – using topology to analyze the phase transitions of a material. Thanks to this discovery, we now know that this does not only occur in thin materials but in ordinary three-dimensional objects as well.

But what can this realization lead to? In addition to advancing research in condensed matter physics, the hope is it will lead to advancements in electronics and superconductors, or even quantum computers. By understanding the flow of electrons through superconductors, electronic components can be made extremely efficient, with little to no electrical resistance. As for the effect on quantum computing, an understanding of the quantum super-cooled, quantum state of electrons in matter will help to build inexpensive and efficient quantum computers – making problem solving and database searches much faster. Through the discoveries made by these three Laureates, the future of electronics and computing technologies looks bright.

Stock Report 2016… Story By: John Holmes

The market is up…here is the Dow Jones, NASDAQ, and S&P. Photo by: CNN.
The market is up…here is the Dow Jones, NASDAQ, and S&P. Photo by: CNN.

Stock markets do crazy things during an election. The Dow rose 257 points the day after the election, and the S&P 500 and the NASDAQ rose by 1.1% each. However, on Tuesday, Dow futures were down 900 points and there was a 4% drop in crude oil prices.

Global markets also suffered some loss after the election. Both the Mexican peso and the British pound fell 9%, and the Japanese market fell sharply with a 5% drop in the Nikkei 225. In addition to these, the Euro has also gone down in value.

There was some rising, though. Big banks rose their interest rates, with JPMorgan Chase rising 5% and a 7% increase for Morgan Stanley. Defense stocks, such as Lockheed Martin and Raytheon, also rose.

Though there were some large drops, the odd behavior of the market during and just after the election is nothing to fret over. Presidential elections normally cause strange behavior in the market. According to Anne Smith, Senior Editor of Kiplinger, “The stock market has, for the most part, ebbed and flowed with the four-year election cycle for the past 182 years.” Bear markets and recessions are common trends during a president’s first two years, and bull markets and prosperous times tend to occur in the final two. For example, the Dow Jones, ever since 1833, has gained an average of 10.4% the year before an election, but normally drops to 6% during the election year. And as for concerns about which party wins the White House, Smith says those concerns are “unwarranted—at least from an investing standpoint.” As can be seen, there is really no need to worry over your investment portfolio after an election.

The current exchange rates…the Euro, Pound, Yen, Canadian Dollar, Yuan. Photo by: CNN.
The current exchange rates…the Euro, Pound, Yen, Canadian Dollar, Yuan. Photo by: CNN.

As for the current market, the Dow is at +0.19%, the NASDAQ is at +0.74%, and S&P is at +0.47%. Oil is at $44.93 per barrel, gas is at an average of $2.70, gold is at $1,217.30, and silver is at $16.80. Japan’s Nikkei is at 0%, London’s FTSE 100 is at +0.67%, Germany’s DAX is at +0.20%, and Hong Kong’s Hang Seng is at -0.08%. The exchange rate for the Euro is $1.06, for the British pound it is $1.24, and the Canadian dollar is at $0.74. Some of the most popular stocks include Fitbit Inc., Cisco, American Airlines, Wal-Mart, and Macy’s.

Hopefully, as a new year comes, the market will continue to rise and rebound. It is just a matter of waiting to see.

Yahoo in Cahoots Story By: Iris Grayson

yahoo-1-1Yahoo is an internet site known for answering those stupid questions we have, sending e-mails, and informing us on the news, but lately they’ve been telling U.S Intelligence a lot far beyond their privacy policy. Yahoo claims to “Yahoo takes your privacy seriously.” (-Yahoo Privacy Center), but according to Yahoo workers Yahoo has been scouring hundreds of thousands of emails looking for information, for the U.S intelligence. What they are searching for is terrorist information. Sources say it was probably sent through a privet e-mail. Though Yahoo might not be the only one asked to search through privet information. The NSA states that if Yahoo was asked to search it is likely that other internet sites were asked as well. As more tech companies become more skilled at encrypting data it is likely they will receive more such requests.

Even though we don’t know the specific program used we do know that Yahoo’s tracking tool is similar to the tool used to the one used to look for spam, malware, and child pornography. However it is different than Upstream in the fact that it looks through message headers, message content, and message to and from. The government targeted the specific accounts of foreigners.`

“This is a troubling vision of the future where there might be massive government surveillance done with computers,” Opsahl states “The government may well say they were only targeting a string of characters used by a foreigner, but it just so happened that hundreds of millions of innocent people also had their emails examined too.”

Information such as Identifaction, social security numbers, date of birth, and location if

They are not the only company to have done this. Apple has done a similar thing when they wrote a program to break into an encrypted IPhone involved in the San Bernardino massacre. The FBI dropped the case after the phone revealed the help of a third party. According Sam Biddle, the Interpret, the other internet “giants” (Google, Twitter, Facebook and Apple) denied involvement in the “hacking”.

Not only has Yahoo violated their privacy policy, but they have violated the right to privacy stated in the Fourth Amendment.

yahoo2-1-1Yahoo has also sent a scan out through e-mail that detects a certain signature that was supposedly used in terrorist messaging.

“The company probably wants to say more, but are gagged by the very same company the accepted the request from.” Opsahl states.

Not long ago Yahoo resisted government demands. The Sunnyvale Company intentionally challenged the program in a battle dating back to 2007, despite being fined 250,000 dollars a day.

Though Yahoo was under different management. Melissa Mayer, a past Google executive for the past four years, was the one who denied such requests.

Yahoo currently has plans to sell the company to Verizon. Verizon currently has no comment on the matter.

Though the question must be asked: Yahoo was asked to do such things in the past, why have they said yes to this specific request?

Was it right for Colin Kaepernick to Kneel During the National Anthem? Story By: Bailey Stapleton

Above, shows Colin Kaepernick kneeling during the national anthem
Above, shows Colin Kaepernick kneeling during the national anthem

The last few 49’ers games led to much controversy as NFL player, Colin Kaepernick of The San Francisco 49’ers allegedly sat and then kneeled during the National Anthem. He has stated that the reason for the kneeling was because of his belief that “Black people” are being oppressed. He then went to say quote, “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses Black people and people of color,” Kaepernick told NFL Media in an exclusive interview after the game. “To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder.”

This angered fans and veterans who took to social media to express their feelings even famous NFL player Jerry Rice went to say “All lives matter. So much going on in this world today. Can we all just get along! Colin, I respect your stance but don’t disrespect the Flag.”

Kaepernick on left hugs Aaron Rodgers on right after defeat to Green Bay in Pre-season.
Kaepernick on left hugs Aaron Rodgers on right after defeat to Green Bay in Pre-season.

Was it right for Colin to sit? It appears not as he received boo’s from the Chargers stadium. One navy veteran was outraged over the kneeling and went to say “I was in the Navy and I saw men and women bleed and die for this flag, If he wants to do something, go to some outreach program where he can do some good. And I get it, his First Amendment right. But you don’t sit during the presenting of the colors, and you don’t sit during the national anthem. That is not the way to do it.” While in the crowd one sign read, “You’re an American act like it!” It seems Kaepernick was in the wrong as people everywhere even his good friend Aaron Rodgers disagrees with his act and has refused to support Kaepernick. Even the NFL is considering pulling him.

Unlocking the Secret of Communication Story By: Andrew Van Helsing

Unlocking the Secret of Communication Story By: Andrew Van Helsing

vanwinkleandrew_415_91575_wolf howl-2Do canines communicate using dialects like humans? One of the largest studies on canine dialect and howling has uncovered some vocal fingerprints which may lead us to understand the meanings behind wolves’ howls. Originally, there was a repository of 6,000 different howls, ranging from domestic dogs to wild wolves. Researchers narrowed this number down to 2,000 and used a mathematical computer algorithm to create 21 different howl types used by the candid species. The types of howls range from a flat, monotonous howl to a strong, modulated howl.

Dr. Arik Kershenbaum, from Cambridge University, states, “we’ve known for a while that you can detect differences in wolf howls by ear…we don’t know whether the cues that we are picking up on as humans are the same cues that are being detected and interpreted by the animals themselves.” Because of this, they went on to research the similarities and differences that were found in the howls, without human perception interfering. The study found that smaller canids have the more modulated howl while the larger canids have more of a monotonous howl. Kershenbaum also mentioned that we could use that information from the research conducted to better track and manage the wild wolf populations.

For example, red wolves are interbreeding with coyotes, which is causing major problems, as they are on the brink of extinction. One of the main reasons that they are breeding is because of the fact that both of their howls are classified as type 3. Researchers are hoping to use triangulation technology based off of the dialect study, so they can prevent the red wolves from doing this. They plan to use recording devices to send pack warnings to other wolf packs so that they can separate the two breeds. This technology also wields the possibility of preventing wild wolves from approaching populated areas, which, in turn, reduces the chances of conflicts between wild animals and humans. Kershenbaum said that they could play back appropriate howls to wolf packs, such as “we’re a strong aggressive pack” and not “we’ve found some interesting food here and we’re going to eat it.”

vanwinkleandrew_415_91576_dolphinspeak-2Prior to this study, Kershenbaum had also done research on dolphin communication and found that if you slow down a dolphin’s whistle, then it sounds like a wolf’s howl. He is sure that the secrets of the human language and its development lie within calls of social animals like wolves and dolphins. Is it possible that we could learn to understand and communicate back with other animals in the future? It may be more probable than you would expect.

Valentine’s Day Fundraiser… Story By: Miranda Paddack

Valentine’s Day Fundraiser… Story By: Miranda Paddack

 

Red Roses-Liz WestValentine’s Day is a great opportunity for a school fundraiser; flowers and chocolate are always a hit in school. The student council has their candy grams at a dollar each and their roses at five dollars each. Is $5 too much for a single rose? Student council must make profit from these fundraisers, but are they milking it?

According to Andrew Van Winkle, our student council secretary, they are purchasing their roses from Super-1 Foods one dozen for $10 before tax, which would be .83 cents each.  Is there a better deal out their? To find out we looked into the prices of single and dozen rose prices at Safeway, Super-1, and Yokes. Super-1 Foods generally sell their dozen at $17.98 before tax; however, the student council are getting almost an $8 discount. Could this be due to the student council having a member working at this grocery store? Safeway is selling their plain dozen roses at $19.99 as well as Yokes. Out of all of these stores Yokes has the cheapest bring for single roses for $3.99 before tax.

Super 1 Foods-stratageotech  Student council is getting a great deal, 12 for 10. They are also making a four dollar profit; do they have their roses overpriced? Student council could still be making profit by selling their roses at three or four dollars each, making a profit closer to two and half dollars.